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Sonodynamic Antitumor Effect of Protoporphyrin IX


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Vol. 53, No. 6, 2007

View or print article as PDF (277 KB)

Experimental Chemotherapy

Sonodynamic Antitumor Effect of Protoporphyrin IX Disodium Salt on S180 Solid Tumor
Quanhong Liu, Xiaobing Wang, Pan Wang, Lina Xiao

College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China

Address of Corresponding Author

Chemotherapy 2007;53:429-436 (DOI: 10.1159/000110008)

goto top of outline Key Words

  • Sonodynamic therapy
  • Antitumor effect
  • Protoporphyrin IX
  • Sarcoma 180 solid tumor

goto top of outline Abstract

Background: The sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) disodium salt was studied in mice bearing sarcoma 180 solid tumors. Methods: In order to determine the optimum timing of ultrasound exposure after administration of PPIX, the PPIX concentrations in plasma, skin, muscle and tumor were estimated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of tissue extractions with a fluorescence photometer based on the standard curve. Antitumor effects were estimated by measuring tumor size and calculating the average survival time of tumor-bearing mice after sonodynamic therapy; additionally, the morphological changes of sarcoma 180 cells were evaluated by transmission electron microscope observation in vivo. Results: Our experiments suggested a time of 24 h after the administration of PPIX to be best for ultrasound exposure. At an ultrasound intensity ge5 W/cm2 and a PPIX dose ge5 mg/kg, a significant synergistic effect of ultrasound combined with PPIX was observed, reducing tumor volume and increasing average animal survival time; this synergistic effect was obviously stronger than ultrasound treatment alone, while PPIX alone showed no significant effect. Transmission electron microscope observation indicated that changes in cell ultrastructure, such as cell membrane destruction, mitochondria swelling and chromatin condensation, were important factors that inhibited tumor growth and even induced cell death. Conclusion: The results implied that the antitumor effect of ultrasound could be enhanced in the presence of PPIX which might be involved in a sonochemical mechanism.

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