METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION
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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions, and has been stimulated by the well known requirement of finding energy sources alternative to fossil sources, to prevent atmospheric carbon dioxide contents from being unnecessarily increased.
 For meeting the above need non polluting energy sources should be found which do not involve health risks, are economically competitive with respect to oil sources susceptible to be easily discovered and exploited and naturally abundant.
 Many of the above alternative energy sources have already been explored and operatively tested even on an industrial scale, and comprise biomasses, solar energy used both for heating and photovoltaic electric generation purposes, aeolian energy, fuel materials of vegetable or agricultural nature, geothermal and sea wave energy and so on.
 A possible alternative to natural oil, is the uranium-fission nuclear energy. However, yet unresolved problems affect nuclear energy such as great safety and waste material processing problems, since, as is well known, radioactive waste materials remain dangerously active for thousands or millions of years, with consequent great risks for persons living near radioactive waste disposal-off places.
 To the above the fact should also be added that, at present, a nuclear fusion based on a laser actuated inertial confining method does not allow to make efficient power systems.
 The above drawbacks are also true for deuterium-tritium fusion processes, as shown by the operating times estimated for the ITER project, which should within the year 2025 should allow to construct power systems according to the so-called DEMO project to make, within the year 2035, the first fusion power station.
 In fact, up to now, the so-called "cold" fusion, after an early announcement by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 (M. Fleischmann, M. Hawkins, S. Pons: Journal Electroanal. Chem., 261,301-1989), notwithstanding several exploiting attempts on a world-wise scale, has not provided useful and reliable systems capable of generating energy for normal, industrial or domestic applications.
 5-the catalyzed fusion of negative muons based methods and systems cannot be used because of the muon short life.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Accordingly, the aim of the present invention is to provide a method allowing to produce energy in an economic, convenient, reliable and repetitive manner, without generating radiations and radioactive waste materials.
 Within the scope of the above mentioned aim, a main object of the invention is to provide such a method which can be carried out in small size systems, adapted to be easily controlled and allowing to heat individual places at an operating cost less than that of commercially available heating systems.
 According to one aspect of the present invention, the above mentioned aim and objects, as well as yet other objects, which will become more apparent hereinafter, are achieved by a method and apparatus for carrying out a highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel atoms and hydrogen atoms, in a tube, preferably, though not exclusively made of a metal, filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature preferably, though not necessarily, from 150 to 500[deg.] C., by injecting hydrogen into said metal tube said nickel powder being pressurized, preferably, though not necessarily, to a pressure from 2 to 20 bars.
 In applicant exothermal reaction the hydrogen nuclei, due to a high absorbing capability of nickel therefor, are compressed about the metal atom nuclei, while said high temperature generates internuclear percussions which are made stronger by the catalytic action of optional elements, thereby triggering a capture of a proton by the nickel powder, with a consequent transformation of nickel to copper and a beta+ decay of the latter to a nickel nucleus having a mass which is by an unit larger than that of the starting nickel.
 The present inventor believes that in this reaction is possibly involved a capture of a proton by a nickel nucleus which is transformed into a copper nucleus with a consequent beta decay of the formed unstable copper (Cu 59-64) since the produced thermal energy is larger, as it will be thereinafter demonstrated, than the energy introduced by the electric resistance.
 It is believed that the nickel nuclei are transformed to copper since the mass (energy) of the final status (copper isotope) is less than the overall mass (energy) of the starting status (nickel isotope+proton).
 The exothermal reaction thereon Applicant's invention is based differs from those adopted by prior searchers since the inventor has not tried to demonstrate an emission of elementary particles supporting a validity of a theory, but he has exclusively tried to provide an amount of energy larger than the consumed energy amount, to just achieve a practical method and apparatus for generating an energy amount larger than the consumed energy, and this by exploiting nuclear energy generating processes starting from electrochemical energy.
 Thus, the inventive apparatus has been specifically designed for producing the above mentioned energy in a reliable, easily controllable, safe, repeatable manner, for any desired applications.
 In particular, the inventive apparatus is coated by boron layers and lead plates both for restraining noxious radiations and transforming them into energy, without generating residue radiations and radioactive materials.
 In this connection it is pointed out that all prior attempts to generate like types of energy, have brought to small energy amounts generating prototypes not suitable for a safe industrial use, because of the theoretical nature of the performed searches.